ACCOUNTANCY/BOOK KEEPING-301 Syllabus for Class 12


There will be one Question Paper which will have 50 questions out of which 40 questions need to be attempted.

 Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisations and Partnership Firms

          Unit I: Accounting Not-for-Profit Organisation                                             

•      Not-for-profit organization: Meaning and Examples.

•      Receipts and Payments: Meaning and Concept of fund-based and non-fund-based accounting.

•      Preparation of Income and Expenditure Account and Balance sheet from receipt and payment account with additional information.

                 Unit II: Accounting for Partnership                                                             

•      Nature of Partnership Firm: Partnership deed (meaning, importance).

•      Final Accounts of Partnership: Fixed v/s Fluctuating capital, Division of profit among partners, Profit, and Loss Appropriation account. 

                Unit III: Reconstitution of Partnership                                                       

Changes in profit sharing ratio among the existing partners – Sacrificing ratio and Gaining ratio.

•      Accounting for Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities and Distribution of reserves and accumulated profits.

•      Goodwill: Nature, Factors affecting and Methods of valuation: Average profit, Super profit, Multiplier, and Capitalisation methods.

•      Admission of a Partner: Effect of admission of a partner, Change in profit sharing ratio, the Accounting treatment for goodwill, Revaluation of assets and liabilities, Reserves (accumulated profits), and Adjustment of capitals.

•      Retirement/Death of a Partner: Change in profit sharing ratio, Accounting treatment of goodwill, Revaluation of assets and liabilities, Adjustment of accumulated profits (Reserves).

                 Unit IV: Dissolution of Partnership Firm                                   

•      Meaning, Settlement of accounts: Preparation of realization account and related accounts

(excluding piecemeal distribution, sale to a company and insolvency of a Spartner)

Company Accounts and Financial Statement Analysis

                Unit V: Accounting for Share and Debenture Capital      

•      Share Capital: Meaning, Nature and Types.

•      Accounting for Share Capital: Issue and Allotment of Equity and Preference Shares; Over subscription and Under subscription; Issue at par, premium and at discount; Calls in advance, Calls in arrears, Issue of shares for consideration other than cash.

•      Forfeiture of Shares: Accounting treatment, Re-issue of forfeited shares.

•      Presentation of shares and Debentures Capital in the company’s balance sheet.

•      Issue of Debenture – At par, premium, and discount; Issue of debentures for consideration other than cash.

•     Redemption of the debenture.

•     Out of proceeds of fresh issue, accumulated profits, and sinking fund.

                      Unit VI: Analysis of Financial Statements                           

•     Financial Statements of a Company: Preparation of simple financial statements of a company in the prescribed form with major headings only.

•     Financial Analysis: Meaning, Significance, Purpose, Limitations.

•     Tools for Financial Analysis: Comparative statements, Common size statements.

•     Accounting Ratios: Meaning and Objectives, Types of ratios:

Liquidity Ratios:   Current ratio, Liquidity ratio.

Solvency Ratio:     Debt to equity, Total assets to debt, Proprietary ratio.

Activity Ratio: Inventory turnover, Debtors turnover, Payables turnover, Working capital turnover, Fixed assets turnover, Current assets turnover.

Profitability Ratio: Gross profit, Operating ratio, Net profit ratio, Return on Investment, Earning per Share, Dividend per Share, Profit Earning ratio.

                     Unit VII: Statement of Changes in Financial Position                            

•     Cash Flow Statement: Meaning and Objectives, Preparation, Adjustments related to depreciation, dividend and tax, sale and purchase of non-current assets (as per revised standard issued by ICAI).

Computerized Accounting System

                      Unit I: Overview of Computerised Accounting System                           

•     Concept and Types of Computerised Accounting System (CAS).

•     Features of a Computerised Accounting System.

•     Structure of a Computerised Accounting System.

       Unit II: Using Computerised Accounting System                                     

•     Steps in the installation of CAS, Preparation of chart of accounts, Codification, and Hierarchy of account heads.

•     Data entry, Data validation, and Data verification.

•     Adjusting entries, Preparation of financial statements, Closing entries, and Opening entries.

•     Security of CAS and Security features are generally available in CAS (Students are expected to understand and practice the entire accounting process using an accounting package.)

Unit III: Accounting Using Database Management System (DBMS)

•     Concepts of DBMS.Objects in DBMS: Tables, Queries, Forms, Reports.

•     Creating data tables for accounting.

•     Using queries, forms, and reports for generating accounting information. Applications of DBMS in generating accounting information such as shareholders’ records, sales reports, customers’ profiles, suppliers’ profiles payroll, employees’ profiles, and petty cash registers.

                      Unit IV: Accounting Applications of Electronic Spreadsheet              

•     Concept of an Electronic Spreadsheet (ES).

•     Features offered by Electronic Spreadsheet.

•     Applications of Electronic Spreadsheet in generating accounting information, preparing depreciation schedules, loan repayment schedules, payroll accounting, and other such company

AGRICULTURE (302) Syllabus for Class 12



There will be one Question Paper which will have 50 questions out of which 40 questions need to be attempted.

Unit-1: Agrometeorology, Genetics and Plant Breeding, Biochemistry and Microbiology

Agrometerology: Elements of Weather-rainfall, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, Sunshine weather forecasting, climate change in relation to crop production.

Genetics & Plant Breeding : 

(a)            Cell and its structure, cell division-mitosis and meiosis and their significance

(b)            Organisation of the genetic materials in chromosomes, DNA and RNA (c) Mendel’s laws of inheritance. Reasons for the success of Mendel in his experiments, Absence of linkage in Mendel’s experiments. (d) Quantitative inheritance, continuous and discontinuous variation in plants. (e) Monogenic and polygenic inheritance. (f) Role of Genetics in Plant breeding, self and cross-pollinated crops, methods of breeding in field crops-introduction, selection, hybridization, mutation and polyploidy, tissue and cell culture. (g) Plant Biotechnologydefinition and scope in crop production.

Biochemistry: pH and buffers,Classification and nomenclature of carbohydrates; proteins; lipids; vitamins and enzymes.

Microbiology: Microbial cell structure,Micro-organisms- Algae, Bacteria, Fungi, Actinomycetes, Protozoa and Viruses. Role of micro-organisms in respiration, fermentation and organic matter decomposition

Unit-2: Livestock Production

Scope and importance : (a) Importance of livestock in agriculture and industry, White revolution in India. (b) Important breeds Indian and exotic, distribution of cows, buffaloes and poultry in India.

Care and management : (a) Systems of cattle and poultry housing (b) Principles of feeding, feeding practices.

Balanced ration-definition and ingredients. (d) Management of calves, bullocks, pregnant and milch animals as well as chicks crockrels and layers, poultry. (e) Signs of sick animals, symptoms of common diseases in cattle and poultry, Rinderpest, black quarter, foot and mouth, mastitis and haemorrhagicsepticaemiacoccidiosis, Fowl pox and Ranikhet disease, their prevention and control.

Artificial Insemination : Reproductive organs, collection, dilution and preservation of semen and artificial insemination, role of artificial insemination in cattle improvement. Livestock Products: Processing and marketing of milk and Milk products.


Unit-3:        Crop Production

Introduction : (a) Targets and achievements in foodgrain production in India since independence and its future projections, sustainable crop production, commercialization of agriculture and its scope in India. (b) Classification of field crops based on their utility-cereals, pulses, oils seeds, fibre, sugar and forage crops.

Soil, Soil fertility, Fertilizers and Manures: (a) Soil, soil pH, Soil texture, soil structure, soil organisms, soil tilth, soil fertility and soil health. (b) Essential plant nutrients, their functions and deficiency symptoms. (c) Soil types of India and their characteristics. (d) Organic manure, common fertilizers including straight, complex, fertilizer mixtures and biofertilizers; integrated nutrient management system.

Irrigation and Drainage: (a) Sources of irrigation (rain, canals, tanks, rivers, wells, tubewells). (b) Scheduling of irrigation based on critical stages of growth, time interval, soil moisture content and weather parameters. (c) Water requirement of crops. (d) Methods of irrigation and drainage. (e) Watershed management

Weed Control : Principles of weed control, methods of weed control (cultural, mechanical, chemical, biological and Integrated weed management).

Crops: Seed bed preparation, seed treatment, time and method of sowing/planting, seed rate; dose, method and time of fertilizer application, irrigation, interculture and weed control; common pests and diseases, caused by bacteria, fungi virus and nematode and their control, integrated pest management, harvesting, threshing, post harvest technology: storage, processing and marketing of major field crops-Rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, pearl millet, groundnut, mustard, pigeon-pea, gram, sugarcane, cotton and berseem.

Unit-4: Horticulture

(a)         Importance of fruits and vegetables in human diet, Crop diversification & processing Industry. (b) Orchard- location and layout, ornamental gardening and kitchen garden. (c) Planting system, training, pruning, intercropping, protection from frost and sunburn. (d) Trees, shrubs, climbers, annuals, perennials-definition and examples. Propagation by seed, cutting, budding, layering and grafting. (e) Cultivation practices, processing and marketing of: (i) Fruits – mango, papaya, banana, guava, citrus, grapes. (ii) Vegetables – Radish, carrot, potato, onion, cauliflower, brinjal, tomato, spinach and cabbage. (iii) Flowers – Gladiolus, canna, chrysanthemums, roses and marigold. (f) Principles and methods of fruit and vegetable preservation. (g) Preparation of jellies, jams, ketchup, chips and their packing.

ANTHROPOLOGY (303) Syllabus for Class 12

There will be one Question Paper which will have 50 questions out of which 40 questions need to be


              Unit-1 : Physical Anthropology:

(i)       Preliminary knowledge of Human genetics. Mendel’s Laws of heredity Monohybrid and Dihybrid ratio.

(ii)     Definition of Race and Racial criteria, significance of skin colour, Eye form and colour, Head form, and ABa blood groups as racial criteria.

(iii)   Racial classification, distinctive physical features and geographical distribution of the major racial groups of man: Caucasoid, Mongoloid, Negroid and Australoid.

                   Unit-2 : Prehistoric Archaeology:

(i)       Tool Making: Techniques of manufacturing core and flake tools, primary and secondary flaking, pressure flaking, grinding and polishing. Materials used in making prehistoric tools.

(ii)     Tool families: Pebble tools, Hand axe, Cleaver, Scrapers, Microliths, Points, Blades, Awl, Graver, Celts, Sickles, Spear-head, Arrow-head and Bone tools.

(iii)   Prehistoric Cultures:Abrief outline of the following prehistoric cultures of the Paleol ithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods-

A comparative study of the salient features of Paleolithic and Neolithic cultures.

     Unit-3 : Material culture and economic Anthropology :

(i)       Economic life: meaning and aspects, characteristic features of primitive or simple economic sys- tem.

(ii)     Subsistence economy: domestication of animals-pastoralism, agriculture-shifting cultivation, horti- culture, terrace cultivation and plough cultivation.

(iii)   Brief outline of the methods of hunting, fishing and agriculture with reference to Various communities of North East India as far as practicable.

      Unit-4 : Social Anthropology and Ethnography :

:  Social Anthropology :

(i)     Family: Definition, forms and types: nuclear family, joint family, family of orientation, family of procreation, monogamous and polygamous (polygynous and polyandrous). (ii) Clustered relationship in a  nuclear family.

(iii) Rules of residence: Patrilocal, matrilocal, neolocal, avancolocal, bi-local, matripatri local. Rules of descent:

Patrilineal and matrilineal descent.

(iv)  Functions of family, social nature of family.

: Ethnography :

(i)     A brief outline of the land and people of North-East India.

(ii)   Study of material culture and economic life of the following communities (iii) The Garo: Shifting or Jhum cultivation.

(iv)  The Mishing: Plough cultivation

(v)    A study of social organization of the Ao Naga and the Apatani.

                    Unit-5 : Ecology :

(i)       Meaning and definition of ecology and environment.

(ii)     Elements of the environment: Solid, liquid, and gas.

(iii)   Physical or abiotic environment, biological or biotic environment and sociocultural environment.

(iv)    Man as the main agent to disturb the ecological balance.(iv)    Man as the main agent to disturb the ecological balance.

(iv)    Man as the main agent to disturb the ecological balance.

BIOLOGY/BIOLOGICAL Syllabus for Class 12



There will be one Question Paper which will have 50 questions out of which 40 questions need to be attempted.


Unit I: Reproduction

Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes- Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination–types, agencies and examples; Outbreedings devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events– Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes– apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis- spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).

Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD);

Birth control- Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit II: Genetics and Evolution

Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism– Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination– In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance- Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans– Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

Molecular Basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation– Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.

Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution– Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic dirft; Hardy- Weinberg’s principle;Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

Unit III: Biology and Human Welfare

Health and Disease: Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology–vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDs; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.

Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.

Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.


Unit IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications

Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).

Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms- Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues– Biopiracy and patents.

Unit V: Ecology and environment

Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions– mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes–growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services– Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.

Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.

Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warming; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.




There will be one Question Paper which will have 50 questions out of which 40 questions need to be


Principles and Functions of Management

  Unit I: Nature and Significance of Management            

•     Management – concept, objectives, importance.

•     Nature of management; Management as Science, Art, Profession.

•     Levels of management – top, middle supervisory (First level).

•     Management functions – planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling.

•     Coordination – nature, and importance.

       Unit II: Principles of Management                                     

•     Principles of Management – meaning, nature and significance.

•     Fayol’s principles of management.

•     Taylor’s Scientific Management – Principles and Techniques.

     Unit III: Business Environment                                                              

•     Business Environment – meaning and importance.

•     Dimensions of Business Environment – Economic, Social, Technological, Political, and Legal.

•     Economic Environment in India; Impact of Government policy changes on business and industry, with special reference to the adoption of the policies of liberalization privatization, and globalization.

Unit IV: Planning

•     Meaning, features, importance, limitations.

•     Planning process.

•     Types of Plans – Objectives, Strategy, Policy, Procedure, Method, Rule, Budget, Programme

Unit V: Organising

• Meaning and importance.

• Steps in the process of organizing.

• Structure of organization – functional, and divisional.

• Formal and informal organization.

• Delegation: meaning elements and importance.

• Decentralization: meaning and importance.

• Difference between delegation and decentralization.

Unit VI: Staffing

•     Meaning, need, and importance of staffing.

•     Staffing as a part of Human Resources Management.

•     Steps in the staffing process.

•     Recruitment – meaning and sources.

•     Selection – meaning and process.


•     Training and Development – meaning, need, methods – on the job and off the job methods of



           Unit VII: Directing  

•         Meaning, importance, and principles.

•         Elements of Direction:

–  Supervision – meaning and importance

–  Motivation – meaning and importance, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs; Financial and non-financial incentives.

–  Leadership – meaning, importance; qualities of a good leader.

–  Communication – meaning and importance, formal and informal communication; barriers

to effective communication.

             Unit VIII: Controlling                                                   

•         Meaning and importance.

•         Relationship between planning and controlling.

•         Steps in the process of control.

•         Techniques of controlling.

Business Finance and Marketing

      Unit IX: Business Finance

•    Business finance – meaning, role, objectives of financial management.

Financial planning – meaning and importance.

•    Capital Structure – meaning and factors.

•    Fixed and Working Capital – meaning and factors affecting their requirements.

           Unit X: Financial Markets                                                   

•          Concept of Financial Market: Money Market – nature instruments;

•          Capital market: nature and types – primary and secondary market.

•          The distinction between capital market and money market.

•          Stock Exchange – meaning, functions, NSEI, OCTEI, Trading Procedure.

•          Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) – Objectives, Functions.

                Unit XI: Marketing        

•          Marketing – meaning, functions, role.

•          The distinction between marketing and selling.

•          Marketing mix – concept and elements:

–         Product – nature, classification, branding, labeling, and packaging

–         Physical distribution: meaning, role; Channels of distribution, – meaning, types, factors, determining the choice of channels.

–         Promotion – meaning and role, promotion mix, Role of Advertising and personal selling; objections to Advertising.

–         Price: factors influencing pricing.

      Unit XII: Consumer Protection                                                             

•     Importance of consumer protection.

•     Consumer rights.

•     Consumer responsibilities.

•     Ways and means of consumer protection – Consumer awareness and legal redressal with special reference to the Consumer Protection Act.

•     Role of consumer organizations and NGOs.

   Unit XIII: Entrepreneurship  Development      

•     Concept, Functions, and Need.

•     Entrepreneurship Characteristics and Competencies.

•     Process of Entrepreneurship Development.

•     Entrepreneurial Values, Attitudes, and Motivation – Meaning and Concept.

Chemistry Syllabus for Class 12


There will be one Question Paper which will have 50 questions out of which 40 questions need to be attempted.

  CHEMISTRY – 306           

     Unit I: Solid State                        

Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic covalent, and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids(elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three-dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n and p-type semiconductors.

       Unit II: Solutions                       

Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, the solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – the relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation      

of B.P., depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Vant Hoff factor.

      Unit III: Electrochemistry         

Redox reactions; conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell – electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells. Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.

     Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics         

Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations, and half-life (only for zero and first-order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment).Activation energy, Arrhenius equation.

     Unit V: Surface Chemistry         

Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis: homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: the distinction between true solutions, colloids, and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions – types of emulsions.

      Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements   

Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method, and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminum, copper, zinc, and iron.

      Unit VII: p-Block Elements       

Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen – preparation, properties, and uses; compounds of nitrogen: preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen ( structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine

,halides (PCl3, PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).

Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties, and uses; classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, properties, and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).

Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).

Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.

        Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements                                            

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first-row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.

Lanthanoids – electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.

Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states, and comparison with lanthanoids.

        Unit IX Coordination Compounds                                       

Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, bonding, Werner’s theory VBT, CFT; isomerism (structural and stereo)importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).

        Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes                                         

Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation.

Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only).

Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.

        Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers                                         

Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses, with special reference to methanol and ethanol.

Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.

Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.

        Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids                       

Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, the reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.

Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.

        Unit XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen   

Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary, and tertiary amines.

Cyanides and Isocyanides – will be mentioned at relevant places in context.

Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions, and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

Unit XIV: Biomolecules                   

Carbohydrates – Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance.

Proteins Elementary idea of a-amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.

Hormones –Elementary idea (excluding structure).

Vitamins – Classification and functions.

Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA

Unit XV: Polymers                           

Classification – Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.

Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life                                                       

1.      Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.

2.      Chemicals in food – preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.3. Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

Computer Science Syllabus for Class 12

Informatics Practices – 308 Computer Science/Informatics Practices


There will be one Question Paper which will contain Two Sections i.e. Section A and Section B

[B1 and B2].

Section A will have 15 questions covering both i.e. Computer Science/Information Practices which will be compulsory for all candidates

Section B1 will have 35 questions from Computer Science out of which 25 questions need to be attempted.    

Section B2 will have 35 questions purely from Information Practices out of which 25 question will

be attempted.

Section A

Exception and File Handling in Python

Exception Handling: syntax errors, exceptions, need of exception handling, user-defined exceptions, raising exceptions, handling exceptions, catching exceptions, Try – except – else clause, Try – finally clause, recovering and continuing with finally, built-in exception classes.

File Handling: text file and binary file, file types, open and close files, reading and writing text files, reading and writing binary files using pickle module, file access modes.

Database Concepts

Introduction to database concepts, difference between database and file system, relational data model: concept of domain, tuple, relation, keys – candidate key, primary key, alternate key, foreign key;

Relational algebra: selection, projection, union, set difference and cartesian product;

Structured Query Language

Advantages of using Structured Query Language, Data Definition Language, Data Query Language and Data Manipulation Language, Introduction to MySQL, Creating a database using MySQL, Data Types



Data Manipulation: INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE Math functions: POWER (), ROUND (), MOD ().

Text functions: UCASE ()/UPPER (), LCASE ()/LOWER (), MID ()/SUBSTRING ()/SUBSTR (), LENGTH (), LEFT (), RIGHT (), INSTR (), LTRIM (), RTRIM (), TRIM ().

Date Functions: NOW (), DATE (), MONTH (), MONTHNAME (), YEAR (), DAY (), DAYNAME ().

Aggregate Functions: MAX (), MIN (), AVG (), SUM (), COUNT (); using COUNT (*). Querying and manipulating data using Group by, Having, Order by.

Operations on Relations – Union, Intersection, Minus, Cartesian Product, JOIN

Computer Networks

Introduction to computer networks, Evolution of networking,

Network types: LAN, WAN, MAN

Network devices: Modem, Ethernet Card, Repeater, Hub, Switch, Router, Gateway.

Network Topologies: Mesh, Ring, Bus, Star, and Tree topologies

Basic concept of MAC and IP Address

Difference between Internet and web

Section B1: Computer Science

Chapter 1: Exception and File Handling in Python                         

Exception Handling: syntax errors, exceptions, need of exception handling, user-defined exceptions, raising exceptions, handling exceptions, catching exceptions, Try – except – else clause, Try – finally clause, recovering and continuing with finally, built-in exception classes.

File Handling: text file and binary file, file types, open and close files, reading and writing text files, reading and writing binary files using pickle module, file access modes.

Chapter 2: Stack                              

Stack (List Implementation): Introduction to stack (LIFO Operations), operations on stack (PUSH and POP) and its implementation in python. Expressions in Prefix, Infix and postfix notations, evaluating arithmetic expressions using stack, conversion of Infix expression to postfix expression

Chapter 3: Queue                            

Queue (List Implementation): Introduction to Queue (FIFO), Operations on Queue (INSERT and DELETE) and its implementation in Python.

Introduction to DQueue and its implementation in Python.

Chapter 4: Searching                      

Searching: Sequential search, Binary search, Analysis of Sequential and Binary Search. Dry run to identify best, worst and average cases. Implementation of searching techniques in Python.

Chapter 5: Sorting                           

Overview of sorting techniques, Bubble Sort, Selection Sort and Insertion Sort. Dry run to identify best, worst and average cases. Implementation of sorting techniques in Python.

Hashing: Hash Functions, Collision Resolution, Implementing the Map Abstract Data Type.

Chapter 6: Understanding Data     

Data and its purpose, collection and organization; understanding data using statistical methods: mean, median, standard deviation, variance; data interpretation; visualization of data.

Chapter 7: Database Concepts                                                           

Introduction to database concepts, difference between database and file system, relational data model: concept of domain, tuple, relation, keys – candidate key, primary key, alternate key, foreign key;

Relational algebra: selection, projection, union, set difference and cartesian product;

Chapter 8: Structured Query Language                                         

Advantages of using Structured Query Language, Data Definition Language, Data Query Language and Data Manipulation Language, Introduction to MySQL, Creating a database using MySQL, Data Types



Data Manipulation: INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE Math functions: POWER (), ROUND (), MOD ().

Text functions: UCASE ()/UPPER (), LCASE ()/LOWER (), MID ()/SUBSTRING ()/SUBSTR (), LENGTH (), LEFT (), RIGHT (), INSTR (), LTRIM (), RTRIM (), TRIM ().

Date Functions: NOW (), DATE (), MONTH (), MONTHNAME (), YEAR (), DAY (), DAYNAME ().

Aggregate Functions: MAX (), MIN (), AVG (), SUM (), COUNT (); using COUNT (*). Querying and manipulating data using Group by, Having, Order by.

Operations on Relations – Union, Intersection, Minus, Cartesian Product, JOIN

Chapter 9: Computer Networks     

Introduction to computer networks, Evolution of networking,

Network types: LAN, WAN, MAN

Network devices: Modem, Ethernet Card, Repeater, Hub, Switch, Router, Gateway.

Network Topologies: Mesh, Ring, Bus, Star, and Tree topologies

Basic concept of MAC and IP Address

Difference between Internet and web

Section B2: Information Practices

Chapter 1: Database Query using SQL                                                         

Math functions: POWER (), ROUND (), MOD ().

Text functions: UCASE ()/UPPER (), LCASE ()/LOWER (), MID ()/SUBSTRING ()/SUBSTR (), LENGTH (), LEFT (), RIGHT (), INSTR (), LTRIM (), RTRIM (), TRIM


Date Functions: NOW (), DATE (), MONTH (), MONTHNAME (), YEAR (), DAY (), DAYNAME ().

Aggregate Functions: MAX (), MIN (), AVG (), SUM (), COUNT (); using

COUNT (*). Querying and manipulating data using Group by, Having, Order by.

Operations on Relations – Union, Intersection, Minus, Cartesian Product, JOIN

Chapter 2: Data Handling using Pandas – I                                               

Introduction to Python libraries- Pandas, NumPy, Matplotlib. Data structures in Pandas – Series and DataFrames.

Series: Creation of Series from – and array, dictionary, scalar value; mathematical operations; Head and Tail functions; Selection, Indexing, and Slicing.

DataFrames: creation – from the dictionary of Series, list of dictionaries, Text/CSV files; display; iteration; Operations on Rows and columns: add, select, delete, rename; Head and Tail functions; Indexing using Labels, Boolean Indexing; Styling & Formatting data, Head and Tail functions; Joining, Merging and Concatenations.

Importing/Exporting Data between CSV files and DataFrames.

Chapter 3: Data Handling using Pandas – II                                              

Descriptive Statistics: max, min, count, sum, mean, median, mode, quartile, Standard deviation, variance.

DataFrame operations: Aggregation, group by, Sorting, Deleting and Renaming Index, Pivoting.

Handling missing values – dropping and filling.

Importing/Exporting Data between MySQL database and Pandas.

Chapter 4: Plotting Data using Matplotlib                                               

Purpose of plotting; drawing and saving the following types of plots using Matplotlib – line plot, bar graph, histogram, pie chart, frequency polygon, box plot, and scatter plot.

Customizing plots: color, style (dashed, dotted), width; adding label, title, and legend in plots.

Chapter 5: Introduction to Computer Networks                                                                  

Introduction to Networks, Types of networks: LAN, MAN, WAN.

Network Devices: modem, hub, switch, repeater, router, gateway Network Topologies: Star, Bus, Tree, Mesh.

Introduction to Internet, URL, WWW, and its applications- Web, email, Chat, VoIP.

Website: Introduction, the difference between a website and webpage, static vs dynamic web page, web server, and hosting of a website.

Web Browsers: Introduction, commonly used browsers, browser settings, add-ons and plugins, cookies.

Chapter 6: Societal Impacts                

Digital footprint, Etiquettes for Net surfing and for communicating through social media, data protection, Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and their violation, plagiarism licensing and copyrights, Free and Open Source Software (FOSS), Cybercrime and cyber laws, hacking, phishing, cyberbullying, Overview of Indian IT Act, preventing cybercrime.

E-waste its a hazard and management

Awareness about health concerns related to the usage of technology like effect on eyesight, physiological issues, and ergonomic aspects.

Chapter 10: Data Communication                                                           

Concept of communication, Types of Data Communication, switching techniques

Communication Media: Wired Technologies – Twisted pair cable, Co-axial cable, Ethernet Cable, Optical Fibre;

Introduction      to     mobile             telecommunication                   technologies

Wireless      Technologies     –                        Bluetooth, WLAN,                         Infrared,


Network Protocol: Need for Protocol, Categorization and Examples of protocol, HTTP, FTP, IP, PPP; electronic mail protocol

Concept of Channel, Bandwidth (Hz, KHz, MHz) and Data Transfer rate (bps, Kbps, Mbps, Gbps, Tbps)

Chapter 11: Security Aspects        

Threats and prevention: Viruses, Worms, Trojan horse, Spam, Cookies, Adware, Firewall, http vs https

Network Security Concepts: Firewall, Cookies, Hackers and Crackers

Antivirus and their workings

Network security threats: Denial of service, Intrusion problems, Snooping, Eavesdropping



There will be one Question Paper which will have 50 questions out of which 40 questions need to be attempted.

Unit I: Introduction to Microeconomics

•    What is microeconomics?

•    Central problems

Unit II: Consumer Behaviour and Demand

•  Consumer’s Equilibrium: meaning and attainment of equilibrium through Utility Approach: One and two commodity cases.

•  Demand: market demand, determinants of demand, demand schedule, demand curve, movement along and shifts in the demand curve, price elasticity of demand, measurement of price elasticity of demand – percentage, total expenditure, and geometric methods

 Introductory Macroeconomics

Unit III: National Income and Related Aggregates — Basic Concepts and Measurement

•        Macroeconomics: meaning.

•        Circular flow of income, concepts of GDP, GNP, NDP, NNP (at market price and factor cost).

•        Measurement of National Income –Value Added method, Income method, and Expenditure method.

Unit IV: Determination of Income and Employment

•        Aggregate demand, aggregate supply, and their components

•        Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal)

•        Meaning of involuntary unemployment and full employment

•        Determination of income and employment: two-sector model

•        Concept of investment multiplier and its working

•        Problems of excess and deficient demand

•        Measures to correct excess and deficient demand – availability of credit, change in government spending

Unit V: Money and Banking

•        Money: meaning, evolution, and functions

•        Central bank: meaning and functions

•        Commercial banks: meaning and functions

Unit VI: Government Budget and the Economy

•        Government budget – meaning and its components

•        Objectives of government budget

•        Classification of receipts – revenue and capital; classification of expenditure – revenue and capital, plan and non-plan, and developmental and non-developmental

•        Balanced budget, surplus budget, and deficit budget: meaning and implications

•        Revenue deficit, fiscal deficit, and primary deficit: meaning and implications; measures to contain different deficits.


Unit VII: Balance of Payments

•     Foreign exchange rate – meaning (fixed and flexible), merits and demerits; determination through demand and supply

•     Balance of payments accounts – meaning and components A brief analysis of recent exchange rate issues


Unit VIII: Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991

A brief introduction of the state of the Indian economy on the eve of independence. Indian economic system and common goals of Five year Plans.

Main features, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy), industry (IPR 1956; SSI – role & importance) and foreign trade.

Unit IX: Current challenges facing the Indian Economy

Poverty – absolute and relative; Main programmes for poverty alleviation: A critical assessment;

Human Capital Formation – How many people become resource; Role of human capital in economic development;

Rural development: Key issues – credit and marketing – role of cooperatives; agricultural diversification;

Employment: Growth and changes in work force participation rate in formal and informal sectors; problems and policies

Infrastructure:                            Meaning              and                              Types:            Cases                             Studies:        Health:                            Problems             and 

Policies – A critical assessment;

Sustainable Economic Development: Meaning, Effects of Economic Development on Resources and Environment, including global warming

Unit X: Development Experience of India 

•      A comparison with neighbours

•      India and Pakistan  India and China

•      Issues: economic growth, population, sectoral development and other Human Development Indicators

ENGINEERING GRAPHICS Syllabus for Class 12


There will be one Question Paper which will have 50 questions out of which 40 questions need to be



Unit 1: Construction of isometric scale showing main divisions of 10mm and smaller divisions of 1mm, also showing the leading angles.

Isometric projection (drawn to isometric scale) of solids such as cube; regular prisms and pyramids (triangular, square, pentagonal and hexagonal); cone; cylinder; sphere; hemisphere; keeping the base side of the solid parallel or perpendicular to HP/VP. The axis of the solid should be either perpendicular to HP / VP or parallel to HP and VP.


Unit 2: Combination of any two above-mentioned solids keeping the base side parallel or perpendicular to HP/VP and placed centrally together (Axis of both the solids should not be given parallel to HP). 

Machine Drawing (Machine Parts)

Unit 3: Drawing to full size scale with instruments.

Introduction of threads: Standard profiles of screw threads – Square, Knuckle, B.S.W., Metric (external and internal); Bolts – Square head, Hexagonal head; Nuts – Square head, Hexagonal head; Plain washer; combination of nut and bolt with or without washer for assembling two parts together.

Machine Drawing (Machine Parts)

Unit 4: Free-hand sketches

Conventional representation of external and internal threads; Types of studs – Plain stud, Square-neck stud, Collar stud; Types of rivets – Snap head, Flat head, Pan head (without tapered neck), 600 Counter Sunk Flat head.

Machine Drawing (Assembly and Dis-assembly)

Unit 5: Bearings

(i)           Open-Bearing

(ii)         Bush- Bearing

Unit 6: Rod Joints

(i)           Cotter-joints for round-rods (Sleeve and cotter joint)

(ii)         Cotter-joints for square rods (Gib and cotter-joint)

Unit 7: Tie-rod and Pipe-joint (i)           Turnbuckle

                                              (ii)     Flange pipe joints are to be shown.



There will be one Question Paper which will have 50 questions out of which 40 questions need to be


1.      Human Beings and Nature

(i)       Modern schools of ecological thought.

(ii)      Deep ecology (Gary Snyder, Earth First) vs. shallow ecology.

(iii)    Stewardship of land (e.g. Wendell Berry).

(iv)    Social ecology [Marxist environmentalism and socialist ecology (Barry Commoner)].

(v)      Feminism.

(vi)    Green Politics (e.g. Germany and England).

(vii)   Sustainable Development.

Modern schools of ecological thought; definition and basic understanding of Deep Ecology as opposed to Shallow Ecology; Stewardship, Social Ecology – Marxist environmentalism and Socialist Ecology, Eco feminism, Green political movements of Germany and England and Sustainable Development (basic concepts).

World Wide Fund for Nature – organisation, mission, strategy for conservation.

Greenpeace – organisation, mission statement, core values, objectives and strategy.

2.      Population and Conservation Ecology

(i)       Population dynamics: factors causing population change (birth, death, immigration and emigration); relation between the factors; age structure and its significance; population pyramids; survivorship curves; three general shapes r and K strategies.

Factors causing population change (birth, death, immigration and emigration); relation between the factors; Age structure and its significance; Population Pyramids – interpretation and implications. Rate of change of population – the three general shapes of Survivorship Curves, r and K strategies and differences between the two.

(ii)      Human populations (Malthusian model and demographic transition).

Definition of Carrying Capacity; Malthusian view: concept of ‘over-population’ and shortage of resources; Questioning Malthus. Population Growth vs. Disparate Consumption of resources within and amongst nations. Definition and understanding of Demographic Transition; Factors influencing demographic transition.

Population Regulation: growth without regulation (exponential); simple population regulation (logistic growth curve); factors regulating population size (space, food and water, territories, predators, weather and climate, parasite and diseases, disasters and self-regulation). Basic understanding of the Exponential growth curve (J – shaped) and Logistic growth curve (S – shaped); Factors regulating population size (space, food and water, territories, predators, weather and climate, parasite and diseases, disasters and self-regulation).

     Human population control: family planning; education; economic growth; status of women.

Strategies for human population control with emphasis on women’s empowerment. (Details of methods of family planning not required.)

(iii) Threats to the ecosystem: habitat destruction; genetic erosion; loss of diversity; expanding agriculture; impound water; waste from human societies; increasing human consumption.

Only a brief understanding of the causes and consequences of threats to provisioning and regulatory functions of the ecosystem with suitable examples.

(iv)  Conservation: importance; the critical state of Indian forests; conflicts surrounding forested areas – populations and tribals and their rights

– tourism – poaching – roads – development projects – dams; scientific forestry and its limitations; social forestry; the role of the forest department; NGOs; joint forestry management; wild life – sanctuaries, conservation and management in India; Project Tiger as a case study in conservation.

Definition of: Conservation, in situ and ex situ conservation. Importance of Conservation.

In-situ conservation: Wildlife sanctuaries, National parks, Biosphere reserves (definition, objectives, features, advantages and disadvantages).

Ex-situ conservation: zoos, aquaria, plant collection (objectives, features, advantages and disadvantages).

Conflicts in managing and conserving Forests: India’s forest cover, issues concerning people living in and around forests with particular reference to tribal rights;   threats   to   forests: poaching, developmental projects like roads and dams, over exploitation of forest resources (direct and indirect).

The role of the forest department and NGOs in managing forests.

Some management measures: scientific forestry, social forestry (various types of social forestry), Joint Forestry Management (JFM), ecotourism.

Definition, scope, advantages and disadvantages of each of the above.

Project Tiger as a case study in conservation: Origin, aims, and objectives, successes, failures.
3.Monitoring Pollution

(i)     Pollution monitoring.

Primary and secondary pollutants. Importance of monitoring air pollution including Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (gaseous and particulate). Concept of carbon credits and carbon trading in regulating emissions. Causes for excessive vehicular pollution and various steps taken to regulate pollution-emission standards for new vehicles, implementation of CNG programme, inspection & maintenance programme for in-use vehicles, phasing out of old commercial vehicles and promotion of public transport.

(ii)   Monitoring the atmosphere: techniques.

Monitoring at emission source and of ambient air quality, criteria for monitoring stations, types of stations, number of stations, frequency of data collection, characteristics of ambient air sampling, basic consideration for sampling (to be dealt with in brief). Classification of techniques- manual and instrumental. ManualPassive samplers, High Volume Samplers and Bubbler Systems. Instrumental-photometric techniquesNDIR, Chemiluminescence – principle and use.

(iii) International and national air quality standards.

National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (NAAQM); the main functions of the Central Pollution Board and the State Pollution Control Board, objectives of air quality standards, New name of NAAQM, National Air Monitoring Programme (NAMP) objectives of the NAMP.

Definition of air quality standards and importance; National air quality standards for gases/particulate matter covered under WHO guidelines.

(iv)  Water testing: indicators of water quality.

Indicators (electrical conductivity, turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, faecal waste, temperature, hardness, nitrates and sulphates) the significance of each and their interpretations. B.O.D. and C.O.D., theoretical concept only (lab work for better understanding and not for testing) (v) Soil testing: indicators of soil type and quality and laboratory work.

Soil indicators- the characteristics of a good soil indicator, the three basic types of soil indicators- biological, physical and chemical, two examples of each. The information provided by each of these types of indicators. Definitions, effects and experiments to find out soil respiration, soil pH, soil aggregate, infiltration rate and simple methods of controlling each of these.

4.Third World Development

(i)     Urban-rural divide: urbanisation – push and pull factors; consequences on rural and urban sectors; future trends and projections.

Causes of migration – push and pull factors, consequences on rural and urban areas and ways to reduce migration. Future trends and projections.

(ii)   A critical appraisal of conventional paradigm of development from the viewpoints of sustainability, environmental impact and equity.

Definition of Development.

An understanding that development has become synonymous with growth. This approach has the following impacts on the environment: (a) Ignoring negative environmental impacts; (b) Changing patterns of resource use due to market pressures;

(c)    Overuse and exploitation of resources;

(d)    Diversion of scarce resources to luxury goods; (e) Disparate access to resources; (f) Increasing wastes and pollution.

The above to be explained with suitable examples.

(iii) A case study of Gandhian approach in terms of its aims and processes.

Local self-governance – basic principles behind village policy, Antoday, Sarvoday, Panchayati Raj; local self-sufficiency, local markets and environmental sustainability. Village as the basis of development; promotion of cottage industries and intermediate technologies; 

focus on     employment.

The above to be contrasted with today’s paradigm of growth.

(iv)  Urban environmental planning and management: problems of sanitation; water management; transport; energy; air quality; housing; constraints (economic, political) in tackling the problems; inapplicability of solutions that have worked in the First World and the need for indigenous approach to urban environment.

A basic understanding of the following urban environmental problems: problems of sanitation, water management, transport, energy; air quality and housing.

Awareness of some indigenous solutions: Rainwater harvesting, garbage segregation, composting, energy from solid and liquid wastes, sewage management (dry toilets, Decentralized Water Management System (DEWATS)

Features of new urbanism, goals of smart growth. The following examples of urban planning and management from the third world to be studied:

§  Bogota – Bolivia (Traffic Management);

§  Cuba (Urban agriculture using organic methods);

§  Curitiba – Brazil (Traffic planning and urban renewal using innovative measures);

§  Cochabamba – (Water management and protests against privatisation of water supply).

5.Sustainable Agriculture

(i)      Traditional Agriculture in India: irrigation systems; crop           varieties; techniques for maintaining soil fertility; impact of colonialism; Indian agriculture at independence – food scarcity – food import – need for increasing production – the need for land reform; green revolution – HYVs – fertilizers – pesticides – large irrigation projects (dams); critical appraisal of the green revolution from the viewpoints of agro-bio diversity; soil health; ecological impact of pesticides; energy (petroleum and petrochemicals); ability to reach the poorer sections of the rural communities; sustainability – need for sustainable agriculture – characteristics for sustainable agriculture; techniques of water soil and pest management.

Definition of the following terms: traditional agriculture, natural farming, organic agriculture, modern agriculture (use of hybrid seeds, high yielding varieties, chemical fertilizers and pesticides), gene revolution (genetically modified seeds) and sustainable agriculture.

Irrigation systems:

Macro vs micro irrigation systems – canal irrigation/dam as compared to sprinkler/ drip/ trickle drip/dug wells. Basic features, advantages and disadvantages of each kind. Traditional rainwater harvesting- tankas, khadins, ahar, pynes, zings, johads and eris (suitability of each type in the particular region).

Features of pre-colonial agriculture in India: growing for sustenance rather than market; multi-cropping,

management of soil health, diversity in seed.

Colonial influence: punitive taxation, commercial crops for export and British industry, devaluation of sustainable traditional practices. Bengal famine. Comparative study of pre-colonial, colonial and post- colonial agriculture and their impact.

Green Revolution: Origin (food scarcity – food import – need for increasing production).

Basic principles of Green Revolution- Development of High Yielding Varieties (HYV); introduction of fertilizers and pesticides; mono cropping.

Environmental, social and economic impacts – advantages and disadvantages (from the viewpoints of agrobio diversity; soil health; ecological impact of pesticides; energy use; input costs; benefits to small and medium farmers, community level and household level food security).

Land reform – need, advantages, failures and successes.

Elements of sustainable agriculture: Mixed farming, mixed cropping, inter-cropping, crop rotation, use of sustainable practices of water soil and pest management for improving soil fertility (organic fertilizers, biofertilizers, green manure, with two examples) and pest control (bio pesticides). Integrated Pest Management

(IPM); eating local foods

Management of agricultural produce: Storage; Food preservation-different methods like use of low temperatures, high temperatures, drying, canning, preservation by salt and sugar. Transportation of Food.

Food processing – Definition, food preservation, packaging, grading.

Food adulteration and Food additives- definitions; types of adulteration, harmful effects of adulteration.

    Quality Marks – ISI (Indian Standard Institute);            AGMARK         (Agricultural                 Marketing);

FPO(Fruit Product Order) – a brief explanation only.

(ii) Food: the twin problems of production and access; food situation in the world; integrated and sustainable approach to food security for the Third World. Food Security.

Meaning of Food Security, need for food security. The problems in attaining food security – those of production, storage and access. Integrated and sustainable approach to food security for the Third World including working for environmental sustainability and social and economic sustainability through land reform, credit support to farmers, market support to farmers, inadequacies in the present marketing system, ways to improve marketing system, improving access to food, ownership of seeds.

An understanding that national level food security may not translate into household and community level food security or long term environmental sustainability unless the above factors are addressed. Main features of the Food Security Law 2013.

6.Environmental and Natural Resource Economics

(i) Definition: resources; scarcity and growth; natural resource accounting.

Classification of natural resources – on the basis of origin (abiotic and biotic), on the basis of renewability (renewable and non- renewable), on the basis of development (potential and actual), on the basis of distribution (ubiquitous and localized); scarcity and growth, natural resource accounting.

Classification of resources as renewable and non-renewable.

Definition, basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of Physical accounting.

(ii)    GNP vs. other forms of measuring income. GDP, GNP – definitions, advantages and disadvantages of using them as tools for measuring growth.

(iii)  Economic status and welfare (net economic welfare, nature capital, ecological capital, etc.) A broad overview of the purpose of environmental economics.

Definition and classification: Defensive expenditure (its classification); natural/ ecological capital.

(iv)  Externalities: cost benefit analysis (social, ecological).

Externalities – definition, kinds (positive and negative), impacts.

Cost Benefit analysis – Definition, the process in brief, advantages and disadvantages. EPR (Extended Producer Responsibility) – definition, examples, advantages.

(v)    Natural capital regeneration.

What is natural capital? Kinds of natural capital; classification of ecosystem services, causes of degradation (acid deposition, air pollution, deforestation, loss of biodiversity and emission of carbon dioxide), ecological footprint and man’s disproportionate use of natural resources, importance of preserving and regenerating natural capital.

7.International Relations and the Environment

(i)     Trans-national characteristics ofenvironmental  issues using case study of Amazonia, Trade in Wild Life and Ozone Depletion.

Case study of Amazonia – causes for exploitation of forests, reasons for acceleration of deforestation, effects of government policies, ecological value of rainforests and possible solutions to the problem.

Case study of ivory trade in Africa – reasons for flourishing trade of ivory in the past, steps taken to curb the trade and the consequences of ban in trade.

Case study of ozone depletion – what is meant by ozone layer and how does it get depleted, (Chapman’s cycle), potential effects of ozone depletion, common ozone depleting substances (halons, carbon tetrachloride, CFCs, methyl chloroform, methyl bromide and HCFCs) and their life span in the atmosphere; Ozone hole; steps taken to control ozone depletion.

(ii)   Impact of international politics, national sovereignty and interest.

(iii) International trade: a theoretical perspective; free trade vs. protectionism; import barriers; domestic industry vs. free trade; transnational companies – a historical perspective (colonialism and its lasting impact today); trade between the first and the third world – characteristics – terms of trade; India’s international trade – characteristics – major imports and exports – foreign exchange crises

– the export imperative and its impact on the environment; the case study of aquaculture in India; diversion of scarce resource from production of subsistence needs to commercial products; toxic waste trade – extent and impact; Globalisation – trade regimes (WTO, GATT, IPR) and their impact on third world.

Definition, advantages and disadvantages of globalization, free trade, protectionism.

Transnational Companies (TNCs) – definition; TNCs and environment – conflict of interest.

History of third world countries’ trade with the developed countries (with special reference to India) with regards to composition and terms of trade (export of primary goods and import of finished goods at higher cost tapping of primary goods leading to environment degradation- open cast mining, agriculture, aquaculture, etc.).

Case study of aquaculture in India to understand the impact of free trade.

 Economic allocation of scarce resources and its impact on environment.

Toxic waste trade – definition, origin, factors sustaining, impact on third world countries (example – health and environmental impacts) and steps to mitigate it (Bamako and Basel Conventions).

GATT – the organization and its metamorphosis into WTO.

Principles and functions of WTO: creating a level playing field for international trade through MFN (Most Favoured Nation), NT (National Treatment) and reduction of import barriers – tariff and non tariff barriers and trading to comparative advantages.

Full forms of and areas addressed in the WTO GATT, TRIPS, TRIMS, Agreement on Agriculture (AOA). A brief understanding of how these agreements impacted India’s trade, food security, economic well-being, environmental sustainability.

Definition of IPR and its categories: copyrights, patents, trademarks, industrial design rights, geographical indicators and trade secrets.

A brief understanding of each of the above categories.

(iv) International aid: agencies; advantages; limitations; need for re-orienting aid; aid vs. self-reliance.

International aid – advantages and disadvantages; Types of Aid: Tied and Untied Aid – advantages and limitations of each.International aid – advantages and disadvantages; Types of Aid: Tied and Untied Aid – advantages and limitations of each.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP Syllabus for Class 12


There will be one Question Paper which will have 50 questions out of which 40 questions need to be attempted.

Unit 1: Entrepreneurial Opportunity                                                     

•        Sensing Entrepreneurial Opportunities

•        Environment Scanning

•        Problem Identification

•        Idea fields

•        Spotting Trends

•        Creativity and Innovation

Selecting the Right Opportunity

Unit 2: Entrepreneurial Planning                                                                                          

•        Forms of business organization- Sole proprietorship, Partnership, Company  Business Plan: concept, format.

•        Components: Organizational plan; Operational plan; Production plan; Financial plan; Marketing plan; Human Resource planning

Unit 3: Enterprise Marketing                                                                                                      

•        Marketing and Sales Strategy

•        Branding, Logo, Tagline

Promotion Strategy

Unit 4: Enterprise Growth Strategies                                                                                  

•        Franchising: Concept, types, advantages, limitations.

•        Mergers and Acquisition: Concept, reasons, types.

Unit 5: Business Arithmetic                                                                                                       

•        Computation of Working Capital

•        Inventory Control and EOQ

         Return       on         Investment         (ROI) and Return on Equity (ROE)

           Unit 6: Resource Mobilization                                                                                       

•      Capital Market- Primary

•      Angel Investor: Features

•      Venture Capital: Features, funding.


There will be one Question Paper which will have 75 questions out of which 60 questions need  to be attempted.

The Question Paper will contain questions from the following topics :

General Knowledge, Current Affairs, General Mental Ability, Numerical Ability, Quantitative
Reasoning (Simple application of basic mathematical concepts arithmetic/algebra
geometry/mensuration/statistics taught till Grade 8), Logical and Analytical Reasoning.



There will be one Question Paper which will have 50 questions out of which 40 questions need to be attempted.       

Fundamentals of Human Geography                                

 Unit I: Human Geography: Nature and      Scope          

Unit II: People               

•    Population of the world – distribution, density and growth;

•    Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change;

•    Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition;

•    Human development – concept; selected indicators, international comparisons.

           Unit III: Human Activities                                                  

•    Primary activities – concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agriculture and allied activities – some examples from selected countries;

Secondary activities – concept; manufacturing: agro-processing, household, small scale, large scale; people engaged in secondary activities – some examples from selected countries;

•    Tertiary activities – concept; trade, transport and communication; services; people engaged in tertiary activities – some examples from selected countries;

•    Quaternary activities – concept; knowledge based industries; people engaged in quaternary activities – some examples from selected countries.

                                Unit IV: Transport, Communication and Trade               

•    Land transport – roads, railways – rail network; trans-continental railways;

•    Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes;

•    Air transport – Intercontinental air routes;

•    Oil and gas pipelines;

•    Satellite communication and cyber space;

•    International trade – Basis and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade, role of WTO in International trade.

                Unit V: Human Settlements

• Settlement types – rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries.

India: People and Economy

Unit I: People

•      Population: distribution, density and growth; composition of population – linguistic, religious; sex,  rural-urban and occupational – regional variations in growth of population ;

•      Migration: international, national – causes and consequences; • Human development – selected indicators and regional patterns;

•      Population, environment and development.

Unit II: Human Settlements

•           Rural settlements – types and distribution;

•           Urban settlements – types, distribution and functional classification.

                        Unit III: Resources and Development                    (Periods 30)

•      Land resources – general land use; agricultural land use – major crops; agricultural development and problems, common property resources;

•      Water resources – availability and utilization – irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods – rain water harvesting and watershed management

(one case study related with participatory watershed management to be introduced) ;

•      Mineral and energy resources – metallic and non-metallic minerals and their distribution; conventional and non-conventional energy sources;

•      Industries – types and distribution; industrial location and clustering; changing pattern of selected industries – iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries; impact of liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation on industrial location;

•      Planning in India – target area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study).

    Unit IV: Transport, Communication and International Trade                             
•      Transport and communication — roads, railways, waterways and airways; oil and gas pipelines; national electric grids; communication networkings – radio, television, satellite and internet;

•      International trade — changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports.

Unit V: Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems

•      Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal; • Urbanisation-rural-urban migration; problem of slums.     

HISTORY-314 Syllabus for Class 12


There will be one Question Paper which will have 50 questions out of which 40 questions need to be attempted.

Unit I: The Story of the First Cities  Harappan Archaeology

Broad overview: Early urban centres. Story of discovery: Harappan civilization.

Excerpt: Archaeological report on a major site. Discussion: how it has been utilized by archaeologists/ historians.

      Unit II: Political and Economic History: How Inscriptions tell a story

Broad overview: Political and economic history from the Mauryan to the Gupta period.

Story of discovery: Inscriptions and the decipherment of the script. Shifts in the understanding of political and economic history.

Excerpt: Asokan inscription and Gupta period land grant.

                       Discussion: Interpretation of inscriptions by historians.

                        Unit III: Social Histories using the Mahabharata

Broad overview: Issues in social history, including caste, class, kinship and gender.

Story of discovery: Transmission and publications of the  Mahabharata.

Excerpt: From the Mahabharata, illustrating how it has  been used by historians. Unit IV: A History of Buddhism: Sanchi Stupa

Broad overview:

(a)          A brief review of religious histories of Vedic religion, Jainism, Vaisnavism, Saivism.

(b)         Focus on Buddhism.

Story of discovery: Sanchi stupa.

Excerpt: Reproduction of sculptures from Sanchi. Discussion: Ways in which sculpture has been interpreted  by  historians, other sources for reconstructing the history of Buddhism.

Unit V: Medieval society through Travellers’ Accounts

Broad Overview: Outline of social and cultural life as they appear in travellers’ accounts.

Story of their writings: A discussion of where they travelled, why they travelled, what they wrote, and  For  whom they wrote.

Excerpts: from Alberuni, Ibn Batuta, Bernier. 

Discussion: What these travel accounts can tell us and  how they have been interpreted by historians.

                 Unit VI:   Religious Histories: The Bhakti-Sufi Tradition

Broad Overview:

(a) Outline of religious developments during this period. (b) Ideas and practices of the Bhakti-Sufi saints.

Story of Transmission: How Bhakti-Sufi compositions   have been preserved.

Excerpt: Extracts from selected Bhakti Sufi works. 

Discussion: Ways in which these have been interpreted  by historians.

Unit VII:   New Architecture: Hampi

Broad Overview:

(a) Outline of new buildings during Vijayanagar  period — temples, forts, irrigation facilities. (b) Relationship between architecture and the political system.

Story of Discovery: Account of how Hampi was found. Excerpt: Visuals of buildings at Hampi.

    Discussion: Ways in which historians have analysed and    interpreted these structures.

             Unit VIII: Agrarian Relations :The Ain-i- Akbari

Broad overview:

(a) Structure of agrarian relations in the 16th and 17th  centuries. (b) Patterns of change over the period.

                          Story of Discovery: Account of the compilation and  translation of Ain-i-Akbari.

                          Excerpt: From the Ain-i-Akbari 

Discussion: Ways in which historians have used the text  to reconstruct history.

                   Unit IX: The Mughal Court: Reconstructing Histories through Chronicles

Broad Overview:

(a) Outline of political history c. 15th-17th centuries. (b) Discussion of the Mughal court and politics.

     Story of Discovery: Account of the production of court chronicles, and their subsequent translation and transmission.

            Excerpts: from the Akbarnama and Padshahnama

           Discussion: Ways in which historians have used the texts  to reconstruct political histories.

Unit X: Colonialism and Rural Society: Evidence from Official Reports

Broad overview:

(a)                 Life of zamindars, peasants and artisans in the late 18th century.

(b)                 East India Company, revenue settlements and surveys.

(c)                 Changes over the nineteenth century.

Story of official records: An account of why official investigations into rural societies were undertaken and the  types of records and reports produced.

Excerpts: From Firminger’s Fifth Report, Accounts of   Francis Buchanan-Hamilton, and Deccan Riots Report. Discussion: What the official records tell and do not tell, and how they have been used by historians.

             Unit XI: Representations of 1857

Broad Overview:

(a)   The events of 1857-58.

(b)  How these events were recorded and narrated.

                    Focus: Lucknow.

Excerpts: Pictures of 1857. Extracts from contemporary accounts.

                 Discussion: How the pictures of 1857 shaped British opinion of what had happened.


    Unit XII: Colonialism and Indian Towns: Town Plans and Municipal Reports

Broad Overview: The growth of Mumbai, Chennai, hill stations and cantonments in the 18th and 19th century.

Excerpts: Photographs and paintings. Plans of cities. Extract form town plan reports. Focus on Kolkata town planning. Discussion: How the above sources can be used to reconstruct the history of towns. What these sources do not reveal.

               Unit XIII: Mahatma Gandhi through Contemporary Eyes

Broad Overview:

(a)                 The nationalist movement 1918-48,

(b)                 The nature of Gandhian politics and leadership.

Focus: Mahatma Gandhi in 1931.

Excerpts: Reports from English and Indian language   newspapers and other contemporary writings. Discussion: How newspapers can be a source of history.

Unit XIV: Partition through Oral Sources

Broad Overview:

(a)            The history of the 1940s;

(b)            Nationalism, Communalism and Partition.

Focus: Punjab and Bengal.

Excerpts: Oral testimonies of those who experienced partition.

Discussion: Ways in which these have been analysed to reconstruct the history of the event.

Unit XV: The Making of the Constitution

Broad Overview:

Independence and the new nation state.

(b)                The making of the Constitution.

Focus: The Constitutional Assembly debates. Excerpts: From the debates.

            Discussion: What such debates reveal and how they can be analyzed.

  HOME SCIENCE-315 Syllabus for Class 12


There will be one Question Paper which will have 50 questions out of which 40 questions need to be attempted.

Unit I: Nutrition, Food science and Technology  1. Clinical nutrition and Dietetics

a)      Significance

b)     Diet Therapy objectives.

c)      Role of nutritionist

d)     Types of diets

e)      scope and career

2.  Public Nutrition and Health 

a)      Concept of Public Health and nutrition.

b)     Nutritional Problems in India.

c)      Strategies to tackle nutritional problems.

d)     Scope and career

3. Catering and food services management 

a)      Types of food service system

b)     Management in food Services.

c)      scope and career

4. Food Processing and technology.

a)      Basic concepts – food science, food Processing food technology, food Manufacturing

b)     Development of food processing and technology and its importance

c)      Classification of processed food.

d)     Scope and career.

5. Food Quality and safety 

a)      Basic Concepts – food safety, food contamination food adulteration

b)     Food Standards Regulation – India (FSSAI, Agmark) and International (CAC, WTO, ISO)

c)      Food safety management systems 

d)     Scope and career.

Unit II: Human Development: Lifespan Approach

1. Early childhood care and education.

a)      NCF (Principles and objectives. 

b)     Concept of crèche, day care centre and Montessori schools. 

c)      View point of Psychologist – Piaget and Vygotsky

d)     Scope and career.

2.  Special Education and support services

a)   Disability

b)   special Education methods

c)   scope and career 

3. Management of institutions and programmes for children, youth and elderly 

a)   Children: Vulnerable, programmes 

b)   Youth: Vulnerable, programmes

c)   Elderly: Vulnerable, programmes

d)   Scope and career

Unit III: Fabric and Apparel.

1. Design for fabric and Apparel

a)   Design Analysis – structive and Applied 

b)   Elements of design.

c)   Principles of design.

d)   Scope and career. 

2. Fashion design and Merchandising

a)   Fashion terminology – Fashion, style, Fad, classic.

b)   Fashion Development – History and Evolution 

c)   Fashion Merchandising

d)   Scope and career

3. Production and quality control in the Garment Industry

a)   Stages of apparel production 

b)   Quality Assurance in the Garment Industry

c)   Scope and career 

4.  Care and Maintenance of fabrics in Institutions

a)   Laundry equipment – Washing drying and ironing

b)   Institutional laundry 

c)   Scope and career

Unit IV: Resource Management  1. Human Resource Management

a)   Significance and functions of HRM

b)   Scope and career

2. Hospitality Management

a)   Concept of different hospitality establishments

b)   Guest Cycle

c)   Departments in Hospitality organizations Front Office, Housekeeping, food and beverages d) Scope and career

 3.   Consumer Education and Protection 

a)   Consumer Problems.

b)   Consumer Protection Act (2019) – consumer rights and responsibilities

c)   Standard Marks – ISI, Agmark, FSSAI, Hallmark, silk Mark, Wool Mark, Eco mark

d)   Voluntary consumer organizations

e)   Scope and career.

Unit V: Communication and Extension 1. Development of communication and Journalism 

a) Basic concepts- Development, Development Journalism, and Development communication. b) Methods of communication

c) Scope and career.

2. Media management, Design, and Production  

a)      Media planning

b)     Media designing and production. 

c)      Media evaluation and feedback

d)     Scope and career

Unit VI: Career Options after Home Science Education

       Career options of self and wage employment in various fields of Home Science.        Career options of self and wage employment in various fields of Home Science. 



There will be one Question Paper which will have 50 questions out of which 40 questions need to be attempted.

1          Agriculture: A Survey            

Agriculture in Prehistory and Proto history/ Textual Sources/ Types of Lands/ Rain-Fed and Irrigated Crops/ Implements/ Seed and Sowing/ Manures/ Pests and Their Management/ Cattle Management/ Horticulture and Arboriculture/ Fishing/ Agriculture and Society

2         Architecture: A Survey          

•         Early and Classical Architecture

 Temple Architecture/ Rock-Cut Structures/ Monolithic Temples/ Constructed Temples/ Public and  Private Architecture

                                            Architecture: A Survey

•         Medieval & Colonial Architecture

                                                                                          Fort and Palace Architecture/ Mosques/ Mausoleums/ Colonial Architecture

3        Dance: A Survey

•         Classical Dance Forms    

Classical Period/ Middle Period/ Modern Period/ Classical Dance Forms/ Bharatanayam/ Kathakali/ Kathak/ Kucipudi/ Manipuri/ O’issi/ Sattriya

•         Folk Dance Forms           

Chau/ Bihu/ Rauf/ Padayani/ DolluKunitha/ Dandiya/ Ghumar/ Kalbelia/ Chau&fla/ Bhangra/ Giddha/ Garba/ Lava)i/ Bamboo Dance

.4Education Systems and Practices: A Survey                                                           

Goals of Indian Education/ Teaching and Learning/ the Teacher and the Student/ Centres of Education/ Temples as First Schools/ Gurukulas/ Viharas and Universities/ Community- Supported Education/ The Continuing System

Two Types of Knowledge and the Right Pupil/ Mere Intellectual Knowledge Is Not Enough/ The Link between Teacher and Pupil/ Teachers Invite Students to Come to Them/ Controlling the Mind and the Senses: the Goal of Indian Education/ Teacher’s Directives to Students  on  their  Completion  of  Study/ what Is  a  Useful  Life?/Hsüan-tsang’s  (Xuanzang) Impressions of Indian Education/ Hsüan-tsang’s (XuanZang) Description of Nalanda University

An Italian Explorer’s Record of Indian Education in the 17th Century/ A Description of Indian

Education in the 18th Century/ The Teacher’s Subsistence/ Respect for the Teacher/ Physical

Education and Sports/ Description of the University at Navadveep (Nuddeah) in Bengal in 1791/ Love of Learning and Support for Education among Indians/ A W –  idespread Colonial Network of Indigenous Schools

Ethics: Individual and Social              

The Cosmic Order/ Buddhist Ethics/ Jain Ethics/ Sikh Ethics/ The Bhakti

Movement Primary Texts on Ethics: Individual and Social: A Selection

From Jain Granthas/ From Buddhist Granthas/ From Asoka’s Edicts/ From the Kural (tr.

P.S. Sundaram)

Martial Arts Traditions:ASurvey      

               Texts/ Practice of Martial Arts/ Stick Combat/ Kaarippayau Martial Arts

Traditions: A Selection from Primary Texts W   restling in the Mahabharata/ Mallapura_a/ Marmasastram

Language and Grammar                     

Languages of India/ Study of Language in India/ Disciplines of Language Studies in India/ Classification of Speech-Sounds/ Theory of Grammar

Other Technologies: A Survey           

Harappan Technologies/ Later pottery/ Glass/ Water Management/ Textile Technology/

 Wing Technology/ Pyrotechnics/ Cosmetics andPerfumes

Other Technologies: A Selection from PrimaryTexts

Gemmology/ Water Management/ Textiles and Garments/ Perfumes and Cosmetics


Note: There will be one Question Paper which will have 50 questions out of which 40 questions need to be attempted.

Section IA Languages (13 Languages)

Code- Name

101 English 102 — Hindi103 — Assamese104 –Bengali105 –Gujarati106– Kannada107– Malayalam108– Marathi109 –Odia110 –Punjabi111 –Tamil112 –Telugu113 –Urdu

Section IB Languages (20 Languages)


201 –Arabic202 –Bodo203 –Chinese204– Dogri205 –French206– German207 –Italian208 –Japanese209 –Kashmiri210– Konkani211 –Maithili212 –Manipuri213– Nepali214– Persian215 –Russian216 –Santhali217 –Sindhi218– Spanish219 –Tibetan220 –Sanskrit  

 Questions from the Language Section will be from the following topics butare not limited to:

1. Reading Comprehension:There will be three types of passages (maximum 300-350 words):i. Factualii. Narrativeiii. Literary

2. Verbal Ability

3. Rearranging the parts

4. Choosing the correct word

5. Synonyms and Antonyms

6. Vocabulary  


There will be one Question Paper which will have 50 questions out of which 40 questions need to be attempted.

PART UNIT I Judiciary

i. Structure and Hierarchy of Courts and Legal Offices in India
ii. Constitution, Roles and Impartiality
iii. Appointments, Trainings, Retirement and Removal of Judges
iv. Courts and Judicial Review

PART II  UNIT –Topics of Law

i. Law of Property
ii. Law of Contracts
iii. Law of Torts
iv. Introduction to Criminal Laws in India

  PART- III UNIT-Arbitration, Tribunal Adjunction, and Alternative Dispute Resolution

i. Adversarial and Inquisitorial Systems
ii. Introduction to Alternative Dispute Resolution
iii. Types of ADR iv. Arbitration, Administrative, Tribunals
v. Mediation and Conciliation
vi. Lok Adalats
vii. Ombudsman
viii. Lokpal and Lokayukta

 PART- IV   UNIT-Human Rights in India

  i. Introduction – International Context
  ii. Constitutional framework and Related laws in India
iii. Complaint Mechanisms of Quasi-judicial Bodies

  PART- V UNIT-Legal Profession in India


The Advocates Act, 1961, The Bar Council of India, Lawyers and Professional Ethics, Advertising by Lawyers, Opportunities for Law graduates, Legal

Education in India, Liberalization of the Legal

Profession, Women and the Legal Profession in India

  PART- VI UNIT-Legal Services

i.              Legal background – Free Legal Aid under Criminal law, Legal Aid by the State, Legal Aid under the Indian Constitution, NALSA Regulations,


ii.             Criteria for giving free Legal Services iii. Lok Adalats

iv. Legal Aid in Context of Social Justice and Human Rights

  PART- VII UNIT-Internatio nal Context

i. Introduction to International Law ii. Sources of International Law – Treaties, Customs and ICJ Decisions

iii. International Institutions, International Human Rights iv. Customary International Law

v. International law & Municipal Law vi. International Law & India

vii. Dispute Resolution – ICJ, ICC and Other Dispute Resolution Mechanisms

  PART- VIII UNIT-Legal Maxims

Important Legal Maxims.

Meaning with illustrations of the following:

–          Actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea

–          Ad valorem

–          Amicus Curiae

–          Audi alterem partum

–          Assentio Mentium

–          Bona fide

–          Bona Vacantia

–          Caveat Emptor

–          Corpus Delicto

–          Damnum Sine Injuria

–          De Die in Diem

–          De Minimis Lex Non Curat

–          Doli Incapax

–          Ejusdem Generis

–          Ex Post Facto

–          Ignorantia Facti Excusat – Ignorantia Juris Non Excusat

–          Injuria Sine Damnum

–          Locus Standi

–          Nemo Debet Esse Judex in Propria Sua Causa

–          Nemo debt non quad habit

–          Noscitur a Sociis

–          Obiter Dicta

–          Pari Materia

–          Per Incuriam

–          Qui Facit Per Alium, Facit Per Se

–          Quid pro quo

–          Ratio Decidendi

–          Res ipsa loquitur

–          Res Judicata Accipitur Pro Veritate

–          Salus Populi Est Suprema Lex

–          Stare Decisis

–          Ubi Jus Ibi Remedium

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